What are some types of Phobias
Start this video at about 6 minutes for a brief description of phobias in general
Case Studies of phobias
There are several types of phobias
For the section B question be able to describe in detail at least 1 type of phobia and 1 case study You might consider using Freud's case study of Little Hans or John Watson's study of Little Albert
What are some explanations of phobias
The behavioral perspective
There are 4 major explanations you should be able to discuss for each explanation be able to explain the theory behind it such as classical conditioning for the behavioral explanation of phobias
Ost and Hugdahl 1981
The ways in which phobic patients (N = 106; animal-, social- and claustrophobics) acquired their phobias were investigated in the present study. The results showed that a large majority (58%) of the patients attributed their phobias to conditioning experiences, while 17% recalled vicarious experiences, 10% instructions/information and 15% could not recall any specific onset circumstances. There was no clearcut relationship between the ways of acquisition and anxiety components (subjective, behavioral, physiological), nor did the conditioning and indirectly acquired phobias differ in severity. However, some interesting trends emerged in the data, showing that animal phobics who recalled conditioning experiences to a larger extent also responded physiologically. For patients with indirect onset experiences (for all three types of phobias) the reverse was true, i.e. they responded to a larger extent in a cognitive-subjective way, rather than with increased physiological arousal.
Acquisition of Phobias and Anxiety Response Patterns in Clinical Patients. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/15882022_Acquisition_of_Phobias_and_Anxiety_Response_Patterns_in_Clinical_Patients [accessed Jan 16, 2016].
Cook and Mineka 1990
By Cook, Michael; Mineka, Susan
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, Vol 16(4), Oct 1990, 372-389.
Three experiments explored the issue of selective associations in the observational conditioning of fear. Experiment 1 results indicated that observer rhesus monkeys acquired a fear of snakes through watching videotapes of model monkeys behaving fearfully with snakes. In Experiment 2, observers watched edited videotapes that showed models reacting either fearfully to toy snakes and nonfearfully to artificial flowers (SN+/FL–) or vice versa (FL+/SN–). SN+/FL– observers acquired a fear of snakes but not of flowers; FL+/SN– observers did not acquire a fear of either stimulus. In Experiment 3, monkeys solved complex appetitive discriminative (PAN) problems at comparable rates regardless of whether the discriminative stimuli were the videotaped snake or the flower stimuli used in Experiment 2. Thus, monkeys appear to selectively associate snakes with fear. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Nature or Nurture?
Be sure to have studies to use for the Section B 12 point question. How would you evaluate this section? Reductionism vs. Holism, Nature vs. Nurture, Methodology, or by comparing and contrasting to competing explanations.
the cognitive perspective
Kindt & Brosschot 1997
The relation between spider fear in children and cognitive processing bias toward threatening information was examined. It was investigated whether spider fear in children is related to a cognitive bias for threatening pictures and words. Pictorial and linguistic Stroop stimuli were administered to 28 spider phobic and 30 control children aged 8–12. Spider-phobic children showed a moderate bias for threatening words. Surprisingly, no bias was found for spider pictures, while the spider-phobic children judged the pictures as more aversive. Moreover, in a recent similar study in adults (Kindt & Brosschot, 1997), a strong relation between spider phobia and bias toward threat words and pictures was found. Several explanations are given to account for this divergence.
the biological perspective
The biological model - states that we are genetically predisposed to fear certain things. Several studies including those by Eysenck, Biederman, Fyer and others all show genetic links or links to temprament
Temperament= In psychology, temperament refers to those aspects of an individual's personality, such as introversion or extroversion, that are often regarded as innate rather than learned
Studies supporting a genetic link to phobias
2.Fyer et al 1995 found a modest genetic link in those that had a 1st degree relative with a Dx of a specific phobia
3.Kendler et al 1992 found a large study of twins higher concordance rate in monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins
4.Öst 1992 found a 60% concordance rate with a 1st degree relative for those with blood phobias
5.Others argue that from an evolutionary perspective we have been bred to be more likely to fear certain objects like snakes over others like flowers
What are some treatments for phobias
Steps in Systematic Desensitatization
Support for Systematic Desensitization
Ost using flooding for snake phobia
Systematic desensitization is a behavioral technique commonly used to treat fear, anxiety disorders and phobias. Using this method, the person is engaged in some type of relaxation exercise and gradually exposed to an anxiety producing stimulus, like an object or place.
Flooding - Instead of the gentle approach of Systematic desensensitization the therapist “floods” the client with the feared stimuli.
Summary--A rapid and effective treatment for specific phobias, in which the treatment is done in one single session. is described in detail. The treatment method consists of a combination of exposure in vi00 and modeiing. The short- and long-term outcome for a consecutive series of 20 patients are reported. Mean treatment time was 2.1 h and at follow-up after an average of 4 yr 90% were much improved or completely recovered.